A new impl Trait 4/4
The end of impl Trait?
May 13, 2022 – 9 min read

The end

This post is the culmination of the previous three posts, which discussed the nature of impl Trait, how to improve it, and prior work on impl Trait. This is my final recommendation on a path forward for impl Trait.


As a quick recap, I suggest introducing a new as impl Trait language feature that abstracts types in general. Augmented with either named unnameable types or expanded type inference, this change would enable all existing functionality while making code clearer and more orthogonal.

Stepping stones

We've been breezing through many different examples and suggestions without really consolidating our knowledge. Let's take some time to build up some higher-level facts that we can use to inform our final analysis.

The lesser of two evils

In this case, the two evils are type inference and named unnameable types. In order for as impl Trait to function, we must choose one of these. Note that we have already chosen one of these (type inference) with impl Trait. I personally think that return type inference is simpler but less in line with Rust's goals1. Let's consult a motivating example:

fn foo<T>(value: T) -> ?? {
    move || value

fn bar() -> ?? {

I would like to have some function foo return a closure that yields some given value. Then, I would like to have some function bar call foo with a predefined value and return the same type. foo's return type must either be inferred or named.


If foo's return type is inferred, then bar must either:

A type alias doesn't change the situation here, as it would also either state type Output = <foo as Fn(T)>::Output or type Output = _.

If we infer the return type of bar from its body, we end up long-range type inference and spooky action at a distance. This has the additional downside that it opens the door for inference to be used in places where it's not strictly necessary. This could lead to further confusion and, in my opinion, would render the feature more harmful than helpful.

If we refer to foo to name bar's return type, we end up with foo only performing local inference which is arguably better. However, we suffer from the explicit function output signature, especially when we want to change the definition of foo. Modifying its arguments would require modifying the type signature of bar (or equivalently, the signature of the type alias) even when the return type has not changed. It makes maintenance more difficult at the same time as making discoverability more difficult.


If we can name foo's return type, then bar can reuse that:

fn a<T>(value: T) -> type 'Closure<T> {
    'Closure<T>: move || value

fn b() -> type 'Closure<i32> {

This opens up new possibilities with closures, and extends nicely to async blocks which are the other main unnameable type. It also alleviates a major problem with naming these types, which was previously done by creating a type alias and using inference to achieve the same result.

The obvious downside is that this breaks encapsulation. There are also some very thorny questions regarding generics for closures that depend on type arguments. As a result, I recommend making this change a separate issue for as impl Trait. In the meantime, we could allow the old-style impl Trait wherever we would write _ as impl Trait or type 'Closure as impl Trait.

Finer details

With a new syntax as impl Trait to perform type abstraction, we must decide:

Are all i32 as impl Debug the same type?

As an example:

fn a() -> i32 as impl Debug {

fn b() -> i32 as impl Debug {

Could we do let mut x = a() and then x = b()? These run contrary to the idea that as impl Trait creates a new type that only exposes a minimum of traits and information, so the answer here must be no. This leads naturally to the idea of as impl Debug as the desugaring site for abstraction itself:

struct A<T: Debug>(T);
fn a() -> A<i32> {

struct B<T: Debug>(T);
fn b() -> B<i32> {

Now it is evident that a and b do not return types that can be meaningfully compared or exchanged. To unify them:

type Output = i32 as impl Debug;

fn a() -> Output {

fn b() -> Output {

Would then desugar to:

struct Output<T: Debug>(T);

fn a() -> Output<i32> {

fn b() -> Output<i32> {

In which case we can see that the return values of a and b can support those operations.

Unnamed in return position

It's worth noting that this still suffers from the same composability restrictions that impl Trait does in return position:

// crate `a`
fn a() -> i32 as impl Debug { 42 }

// crate `b`
fn b() -> ?? { a() }

Because b must return the same type as a, it needs some way to return to a's return type. The most commonly suggested way to do this is to use Fn traits:

fn b() -> <a as Fn<()>>::Output { a() }

Which works, but suffers from the verbosity of the syntax. This is a problem already discussed with type inference.

In practice

Now that we have the groundwork laid, we can make some engineering decisions:

The ultimate goal

I believe that return position impl Trait should be deprecated in favor of as impl Trait. Additionally, we must either stabilize naming the return value of a function (e.g. <foo as Fn()>::Output) or ban as impl Trait in return position. In the latter case, it would still be legal in type alises and that would effectively relegate it to syntax sugar for creating abstracted types. That's not necessarily a bad thing; remember that the ? operator was a huge quality of life improvement and yet is relatively simple syntax sugar.

The major fork in the road is that we must choose between type inference and explicit naming for unnameable types. They both have their pros and cons, and inference could be restricted to a local context if used with named function return values. I believe that any longer-range type inference (e.g. TAIT) is likely to cause more problems than it solves. Explicitly naming unnameable types requires some exotic syntax and may also cause more problems than it solves.

I think it would be acceptable to keep impl Trait in argument position since its sugar is sufficiently simple and its purpose is orthogonal to other features. However, I would be in support of removing it entirely to keep the language consistent and clean if others preferred that.

The way there

On our way there, we can lint and suggest replacing impl Trait with a concrete T as impl Trait:

type Output = impl Debug;
//            ^^^^^^^^^^
// WARNING: Output is nameable type `i32` and should be declared as:
//   type Output = i32 as impl Debug;

This would help push users to use the more explicit as impl Trait syntax and help prevent errors down the line from confusing inference situations. Similarly, we should ban or lint on impl Trait used on nameable types in return position:

fn target() -> impl Debug {
//             ^^^^^^^^^^
// WARNING: return type is nameable type `i32` and should be declared as:
//          fn target() -> i32 as impl Debug

However we must acknowledge that there are still situations where we must allow closures and async blocks to take advantage of inference.

fn target() -> impl Clone {
    || 42

And if we want to allow local inference, perhaps a lint would be best in this case as well:

fn target() -> impl Clone {
//             ^^^^^^^^^^
// WARNING: impl Trait is deprecated
// NOTE:    use explicit inference instead: `_ as impl Clone`
    || 42

I see this as very similar to the change from Trait to dyn Trait, so many of the same strategies are likely to work here as well.

The largest obstacle for as impl Trait will be building consensus for either type inference or named unnameables. Because this space is still up in the air, I think a discussion of as impl Trait would be good to keep separate. When we do come to a consensus on how to resolve this issue, we can deprecate impl Trait completely. That would allow us to complete the transition and resolve many longstanding issues related to impl Trait.


Whew, that was a lot of work. Hopefully I've inspired some new ideas and thoughts about impl Trait. Let's have some lively debate about it and see if we can make Rust a better language for everyone.


Thanks to @computerdruid and @tmandry in particular for reviewing this series of posts and helping me hone my understanding of impl Trait.

1 Don't get me wrong, I actually like type inference and use it all the time. However, I think of Rust's typing philosophy as a kind of "stabilized inference" model.

In geotechnical engineering, it's common practice to use regular soil for building retaining walls, seawalls, and dikes. However, soil alone is not very strong and can easily flow when exposed to movement or water. A seawall made of plain soil would very quickly collapse from the soil shifting and flowing, but we can fix that by adding "reinforcement" to it. These are layers within the soil that provide stiffness and friction to prevent the soil from moving. It's kind of like a dirt sandwich with many layers, and it's surprisingly effective.

I think of Rust's type inference like the soil: it's on-site, abundant, and a natural choice for construction. But it has a tendency to shift and flow because it's only loosely held together. In large quantities it can quickly shift and flow when exposed to change. Likewise, I think of function signatures as the reinforcement. It's not a lot of material, but it's stiff and prevents the type inference inside of function bodies from moving too much. Just this little bit of added stiffness prevents changes from propagating across function boundaries, keeping the system as a whole stable.

This is why I like type inference in statements, but I'm not a fan of type inference in function signatures.